Linux OS, Version, Distributions, kernel - Best Operating System

Linux OS Version, Distributions, kernel – Best Operating System

Linux OS (Operating System)

Linux Os is the best-known and most-used open source operating system. Linux  operating system or Linux OS, is a open source Operating system. As an operating system, Linux Os is software that sits underneath all of the other software on a computer, receiving requests from those programs and relaying these requests to the computer’s hardware. ices, video game consoles, servers, supercomputers and more.

The Linux OS is frequently packaged as a Linux distribution for both desktop and server use, and includes the Linux kernel (the core of the operating system) as well as supporting tools and libraries. Popular Linux OS distributions include Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, Red Hat and openSUSE.

Linux and unix

Linux Os is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds.

The OS is comprised of a number of pieces:

  • The Bootloader:The software that manages the boot process of your computer. For most users, this will simply be a splash screen that pops up and eventually goes away to boot into the operating system.
  • The kernel:This is the one piece of the whole that is actually called “Linux”. The kernel is the core of the system and manages the CPU, memory, and peripheral devices. The kernel is the “lowest” level of the OS.
  • Daemons:These are background services (printing, sound, scheduling, etc) that either start up during boot, or after you log into the desktop.Linux OS, Version, Distributions, kernel - Best Operating System
  • The Shell:You’ve probably heard mention of the Linux command line. This is the shell – a command process that allows you to control the computer via commands typed into a text interface. This is what, at one time, scared people away from Linux the most (assuming they had to learn a seemingly archaic command line structure to make Linux work). This is no longer the case. With modern desktop Linux, there is no need to ever touch the command line.
  • Graphical Server:This is the sub-system that displays the graphics on your monitor. It is commonly referred to as the X server or just “X”.
  • Desktop Environment:This is the piece of the puzzle that the users actually interact with. There are many desktop environments to choose from (Unity, GNOME, Cinnamon, Enlightenment, KDE, XFCE, etc). Each desktop environment includes built-in applications (such as file managers, configuration tools, web browsers, games, etc).
  • Applications:Desktop environments do not offer the full array of apps. Just like Windows and Mac, Linux offers thousands upon thousands of high-quality software titles that can be easily found and installed. Most modern Linux distributions (more on this in a moment) include App Store-like tools that centralize and simplify application installation. For example: Ubuntu Linux has the Ubuntu Software Center (Figure 1) which allows you to quickly search among the thousands of apps and install them from one centralized location.

Top 10 Linux Os (Operating System)

List of Linux Operating System (OS)

  • Ubuntu Linux
  • Linux Mint
  • Open SUSE
  • Kali
  • Back Track
  • Centos
  • Arch Linux
  • Deepin
  • Fedora
  • PCLinuxOS

Linux Kernel

A kernel is the lowest level of easily replaceable software that interfaces with the hardware in your computer. It is responsible for interfacing all of your applications that are running in “user mode” down to the physical hardware, and allowing processes, known as servers, to get information from each other using inter-process communication.

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Microkernel
A microkernel takes the approach of only managing what it has to: CPU, memory, and IPC. Pretty much everything else in a computer can be seen as an accessory and can be handled in user mode. Microkernels have a advantage of portability because they don’t have to worry if you change your video card or even your operating system so long as the operating system still tries to access the hardware in the same way. Microkernels also have a very small footprint, for both memory and install space, and they tend to be more secure because only specific processes run in user mode which doesn’t have the high permissions as supervisor mode.

Linux OS, Version, Distributions, kernel - Best Operating System

Monolithic Kernel
Monolithic kernels are the opposite of microkernels because they encompass not only the CPU, memory, and IPC, but they also include things like device drivers, file system management, and system server calls. Monolithic kernels tend to be better at accessing hardware and multitasking because if a program needs to get information from memory or another process running it has a more direct line to access it and doesn’t have to wait in a queue to get things done. This however can cause problems because the more things that run in supervisor mode, the more things that can bring down your system if one doesn’t behave properly.

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Hybrid Kernel
Hybrid kernels have the ability to pick and choose what they want to run in user mode and what they want to run in supervisor mode. Often times things like device drivers and filesystem I/O will be run in user mode while IPC and server calls will be kept in the supervisor mode. This give the best of both worlds but often will require more work of the hardware manufacturer because all of the driver responsibility is up to them. It also can have some of the latency problems that is inherent with microkernels.

Linux Os Version’s

This is a list of links to every changelog.

4.x

  • Linux 4.9Released 11 December, 2016 (70 days)
  • Linux 4.8Released 2 October, 2016 (70 days)
  • Linux 4.7Released 24 July, 2016 (70 days)
  • Linux 4.6Released 15 May, 2016 (63 days)
  • Linux 4.5Released 13 March, 2016 (63 days)
  • Linux 4.4Released 10 January, 2016 (70 days)
  • Linux 4.3Released 1 November, 2015 (63 days)
  • Linux 4.2Released 30 August, 2015 (70 days)
  • Linux 4.1Released 21 June, 2015 (70 days)
  • Linux 4.0Released 12 April, 2015 (63 days)

3.x

  • Linux 3.19Released 8 February, 2015 (63 days)
  • Linux 3.18Released 7 December, 2014 (63 days)
  • Linux 3.17Released 5 October, 2014 (63 days)
  • Linux 3.16Released 3 August, 2014 (56 days)
  • Linux 3.15Released 8 June, 2014 (70 days)
  • Linux 3.14Released 30 March, 2014 (70 days)
  • Linux 3.13Released 19 January, 2014 (78 days)
  • Linux 3.12Released 2 November, 2013 (61 days)
  • Linux 3.11Released 2 September, 2013 (64 days)
  • Linux 3.10Released 30 June, 2013 (63 days)
  • Linux 3.9Released 28 April, 2013 (69 days)
  • Linux 3.8Released 18 February, 2013 70 ( days)
  • Linux 3.7Released 10 December 2012 (71 days)
  • Linux 3.6Released 30 September, 2012 (71 days)
  • Linux 3.5Released 21 July, 2012 (62 days)
  • Linux 3.4Released 20 May, 2012 (63 days)
  • Linux 3.3Released 18 March, 2012 (74 days)
  • Linux 3.2Released 4 January, 2012 (72 days)
  • Linux 3.1Released 24 October, 2011 (95 days)
  • Linux 3.0Released 21 July, 2011 (64 days)

2.6.x

  • Linux 2.6.39Released 18 May, 2011 (65 days)
  • Linux 2.6.38Released 14 March, 2011 (69 days)
  • Linux 2.6.37Released 4 January, 2011 (76 days)
  • Linux 2.6.36Released 20 October, 2010 (80 days)
  • Linux 2.6.35Released 1 August, 2010 (76 days)
  • Linux 2.6.34Released 16 May, 2010 (81 days)
  • Linux 2.6.33Released 24 February, 2010 (83 days)
  • Linux 2.6.32Released 3 December, 2009 (84 days)
  • Linux 2.6.31Released 9 September, 2009 (92 days)
  • Linux 2.6.30Released 9 June, 2009 (77 days)
  • Linux 2.6.29Released 24 March, 2009 (89 days)
  • Linux 2.6.28Released 25 December, 2008 (77 days)
  • Linux 2.6.27Released 9 October, 2008 (88 days)
  • Linux 2.6.26Released 13 July, 2008 (87 days)
  • Linux 2.6.25Released 17 April, 2008 (84 days)
  • Linux 2.6.24Released 24 January, 2008 (107 days)
  • Linux 2.6.23Released 9 October, 2007 (93 days)
  • Linux 2.6.22Released 8 July, 2007 (73 days)
  • Linux 2.6.21Released 26 April, 2007 (80 days)
  • Linux 2.6.20Released 5 February, 2007 (68 days)
  • Linux 2.6.19Released 29 November, 2006 (70 days)
  • Linux 2.6.18Released 20 September, 2006 (95 days)
  • Linux 2.6.17Released 17 June, 2006 (88 days)
  • Linux 2.6.16Released 20 March, 2006 (76 days)
  • Linux 2.6.15Released 3 January, 2006 (68 days)
  • Linux 2.6.14Released 27 October, 2005 (59 days)
  • Linux 2.6.13Released 29 August, 2005 (73 days)
  • Linux 2.6.12Released 17 June, 2005 (107 days)
  • Linux 2.6.11Released 2 March, 2005 (68 days)
  • Linux 2.6.10Released 24 December, 2004 (66 days)
  • Linux 2.6.9Released 19 October, 2004 (66 days)
  • Linux 2.6.8Released 14 August, 2004 (59 days)
  • Linux 2.6.7Released 16 June, 2004 (37 days)
  • Linux 2.6.6Released 10 May, 2004 (36 days)
  • Linux 2.6.5Released 4 April, 2004 (24 days)
  • Linux 2.6.4Released 11 March, 2004 (22 days)
  • Linux 2.6.3Released 18 February, 2004 (14 days)
  • Linux 2.6.2Released 4 February, 2004 (26 days)
  • Linux 2.6.1Released 9 January, 2004 (22 days)
  • Linux 2.6.0Released 18 December, 2003

2.5.x

2.6.0-test9

2.6.0-test6

2.6.0-test3

2.6.0-test1

2.5.75 released July 10, 2003

2.5.74 released July 2, 2003

2.5.73 released June 22, 2003

2.5.72 released June 17, 2003

2.5.71 released June 14, 2003

2.5.70 released May 27, 2003

2.5.69 released May 5, 2003

2.5.68 released April 20, 2003

2.5.67 released April 7, 2003

2.5.66 released March 24, 2003

2.5.65 released March 17, 2003

2.5.64 released March 5, 2003

2.5.63 released February 24, 2003

2.5.62 released February 17, 2003

2.5.61 released February 15, 2003

2.5.60 released February 10, 2003

2.5.59 released Janury 17, 2003

2.5.58 released January 14, 2003

2.5.57 released January 13, 2003

2.5.56 released January 10, 2003

2.5.55 released January 9, 2003

2.5.54 released January 2, 2003

2.5.53 released December 24, 2002

2.5.52 released December 16, 2002

2.5.51 released December 10, 2002

2.5.50 released November 27, 2002

2.5.49 released November 22, 2002

2.5.48 released November 18, 2002

2.5.47 released November 11, 2002

2.5.46 released November 4, 2002

2.5.45 released October 31, 2002

2.5.44 released October 19, 2002

2.5.43 released October 16, 20022.5.42 released October 12, 2002

2.5.41 released October 7, 2002

2.5.40 released October 1, 2002

2.5.39 released September 27, 2002

2.5.38 released September 22, 2002

2.5.37 released September 20, 2002

2.5.36 released September 18, 2002

2.5.35 released September 16, 2002

2.5.34 released September 9, 2002

2.5.33 released August 31, 2002

2.5.32 released August 27, 2002

2.5.31 released August 11, 2002

2.5.30 released August 1, 2002

2.5.29 released July 27, 2002

2.5.28 released July 24, 2002

2.5.27 released July 20, 2002

2.5.26 releasaed July 16, 2002

2.5.25 releaseed July 5, 2002

2.5.24 released June 20, 2002

2.5.23 released June 19, 2002

2.5.22 released June 17, 2002

2.5.21 released June 9, 2002

2.5.20 released June 3, 2002

2.5.19 released May 29, 2002

2.5.18 released May 25, 2002

2.5.17 released May 21, 2002

2.5.16 released May 18, 2002

2.5.15 released May 9, 2002

2.5.14 released May 6, 2002

2.5.13 released May 3, 2002

2.5.12 released May 1, 2002

2.5.11 released April 29, 2002

2.5.10 released April 24, 2002

2.5.9 released April 22, 2002

2.5.8 released April 14, 2002

2.5.7 released March 18, 2002

2.5.6 released March 8, 2002

2.5.5 released February 20, 2002

2.5.4 released February 11, 2002

2.5.3 released January 30, 2002

2.5.2 released January 15, 2002

2.5.1 December 17, 2001

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